Archive for the ‘Ontology of Law’ Category

Csaba VARGA: The Place of Law in Lukács’ World Concept (1985/2012)

March 13, 2012 Leave a comment

The Place of Law in Lukács’ World Concept [1985] 3rd [reprint] ed. with Postface (Budapest: Szent István Társulat 2012) 218

Introduction: Lukács and the Problems of Law

Part One   Preliminary Skirmishes with the Questions of Law

Chapter 1   Encounters of the Young Lukács with Law   1.1 Legal Studies, 1.2 Friendship with Felix Somló, 1.3 Relationship with Gustav Radbruch

Chapter 2   Glorification of Consciousness in History and Class Consciousness   2.1 The Search for a Way Opposed to Institutions: Law as Force and as Consciousness, 2.2 Reification and the Consciousness of the Proletariat and its Dramatized Legal Conception, 2.3 Messianism as the Core of Lukács’ Preconception

Chapter 3   Provisional Summaries and Question Marks   3.1 Ruthlessness and its Trap in The Destruction of Reason, 3.2 Allusions to a Synthesis in The Specificity of the Aesthetic

Part Two   The Ontology: a Copernican Revolution

Chapter 4   The Ontological Approach as a Methodological Possibility of Transcending Socialist Normativism   4.1 The Genesis and Methodological Significance of the Ontology   4.2 Socialist Legal Thinking (4.2.1 The Revolutionary Period, 4.2.2 The Roots and Manifestations of Socialist Normativism, 4.2.3 The Need for Progress), 4.3 The Making of an Ontological Approach to Law

Chapter 5   The Ontological Concept of Law   5.1 Law as a Complex of Mediation (5.1.1 Complex of Complexes, 5.1.2 Complexes or Social Relationships, 5.1.3 The Interaction of Complexes: Mediation, 5.2 Law as Objectification and as Actual Functioning (5.2.1 The Genesis of Law and the Dialectics of the Use of Coercion, 5.2.2 Positive Law and Natural Law, 5.2.3 The Inner Contradiction of Law, 5.2.4 Legal Superstructure), 5.3 Is Law a Reflection of Reality? (5.3.1 Teleology and Causality, 5.3.2 Reflection of Reality and the Question of Incongruence, 5.3.3 The Nature of Juridical Concepts, 5.3.4 Validity as a Distinctive Quality of Law), 5.4 Law in Action: Formal Legality versus Social Optimum (5.4.1 Components of Law-Observance, 5.4.2 Law and Logic: Subsumption and Manipulation, 5.4.3 “Jurist’s World View” and the Ideology of the Legal Profession)

Chapter 6   The Ontological Approach as a Horizon in the General Renewal of Marxism

Appendix   “Thing” and Reification in Law   A.1 “Thing” or Reification in Marxist Philosophy?, A.2 Concepts of “Thing” as Fictions in the Law, A.3 Objectification, Reification and Alienation as Qualities of the Existence of Law (A.3.1 Objectification, A.3.2 Reification, A.3.3 Alienation), A.4 Conclusions

Postscript   The Contemporaneity of Lukács’ Ideas with Modern Social Theoretical Thought (The Ontology of Social Being in Social Science Reconstructions – with Regards to Constructs like Law)   P.1 Ontologies and The Ontology of Social Being, P.2 Some Key Terms of Lukács’ Ontology, P.3 The Ontology of Social Being as Applied to Law, P.4 Gattungswesen and Alienation

Csaba VARGA: Theory of the Judicial Process; The Establishment of Facts (1995/2011)

March 13, 2012 Leave a comment

Theory of the Judicial Process The Establishment of Facts [1995] 2nd {reprint} ed. with Postfaces I and II (Budapest: Szent István Társulat 2011) viii + 308



2. THE FACT AND ITS APPROACH IN PHILOSOPHY AND IN LAW   2.1. The Understanding of Facts, 2.2. The Cognition of Facts, 2.3. Brute Fact and Institutional Fact (2.3.1. Process-like Development, 2.3.2. Graduality, 2.3.3. Being Attached to Objectivisation or Self-generation, 2.3.4. Indeterminateness, 2.3.5. Relativity, 2.3.6. Historicity and the Methodological Dilemma of Cognition), 2.4. The Particularity of the Appearance of Fact in Law

3. THE IMPUTATIVE CHARATER OF THE JUDICIAL ESTABLISHMENT OF FACTS   3.1. Logic of Problem Solving and Logic of Justification, 3.2. The Difference between Cognition and Judging, 3.3. The Selective Role of Relevancy, 3.4. Fact and Case: a Mental Transformation, 3.5. The Practical Dependency and Context of Qualification, 3.6. Descriptivity Excluded from the Normative Sphere (3.6.1. Concept and Type, Subsumption and Subordination), 3.7. The Unity of Fact and Value, 3.8. The Unity of Fact and Law (3.8.1. “Question of Fact” and “Question of Law”, 3.8.2. The Question of “Ordinary Words”), 3.9. The Reflexivity of Factual and Normative Operations, 3.10. The Limited Natur of Cognition and the Indefinability of Language, 3.11. The Non-cognitive Dialectic of Normative Classification, 3.12. Ascriptivity as End Result

4. THE JUDICIAL ESTABLISHMENT OF FACTS AND ITS PROCEDURALITY   4.1. The Constitutive Nature of the Establishment of Facts, 4.2. Evidence and Procedurality (4.2.1. The Question of “Certainty”), 4.3. The Role of the Force of Law

5. THE NATURE OF THE JUDICIAL ESTABLISHMENT OF FACTS   5.1. As the Play of a Game, 5.2. As the Precondition to Mete out a Legal Sanction, 5.3. As a Non-cognitively Homogeneous Activity, 5.4. As the Reproduction of the Law as a System (5.4.1. The Claim for Normative Closedness, 5.4.2. The Openness of the Communication about Facts)

APPENDIX I: KELSEN’S THEORY OF LAW-APPLICATION: EVOLUTION, AMBIGUITIES, OPEN QUESTIONS   1. „Hauptprobleme der Staatsrechtslehre”, 2. „Allgemeine Staatslehre”, 3. „Reine Rechtslehre” (3.1. Theory of Gradation, 3.2. The Constitutive Character of Law-application, 3.3. Theoretical Question Marks, 3.4. The Theory of Interpretation, 3.5. A Procedural View of Law?, 3.6. Self-transcendence of the Pure Theory?, 3.7. Who Watches the Watchman?)


POSTFACE I: AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE NATURE OF THE JUDICIAL ESTABLISHMENT OF FACTS [1990/1994 & 1991/1992 & 2009]   The Investigation / What Kind of Path has been Covered? / How can we Get Closer to a Feasible Answer? / The Range of Problems in Connection with Facts / Theoretical Advance

POSTFACE II: WHAT IS TO COME AFTER LEGAL POSITIVISM IS OVER? DEBATES REVOLVING AROUND THE TOPIC OF »THE JUDICIAL ESTABLISHMENT OF FACTS« [2001]   Natural Law and Legal Positivism / Legal Positivism and its Logic / Autopoiesis in Praxis / Formalism and Antiformalism in Kelsen-interpretation / On Facts / Fact and Law / Inseparability within the Prevailing Totality / Answers in Deconstructionism

Csaba VARGA: Paradigms of Legal Thinking (1999/2012)

March 12, 2012 Leave a comment

The Paradigms of Legal Thinking [1999] enlarged 2nd ed. (Budapest: Szent István Társulat 2012) 418 [Philosophiae Iuris]


2. METHODOLOGICAL DIRECTIONS IN THINKING (2.1. The example of legal development [2.1.1. Classical Greek antiquity, 2.1.2. Roman legal development { The dikaion-period, Praetorian law. Justinian’s codification]}, 2.1.3. Enlightened absolutism, 2.1.4. The codificational ideal of the Code civil, 2.1.5. Turning point in the way of thinking], 2.2. The example of geometry [2.2.1. Euclidean geometry, 2.2.2. Challenge by Bolyai and Lobachevsky, 2.2.3. Einstein’s revolution], 2.3. The example of thinking [2.3.1. Autonomy { New Testament argumentation, Cicero’s testimony, Saint Augustine, The Talmudic lesson, Orthodox Christianity, Modern “irrationalism”, Beyond conceptual strait-jackets, Patterns of thought, patterns of law}, 2.3.2. Heteronomy { Saint Thomas Aquinas, Grotius, Leibniz}, 2.3.3. The dilemma of the evolution of thought)


4. PARADIGMS OF THINKING (4.1. The paradigm of paradigms [4.1.1. Conventionality, 4.1.2. Cultural dependence, 4.1.3. The nature of paradigms], 4.2. The basic notions of “fact”, “concept”, “logic”, and “thinking” [4.2.1. The need for a change of paradigms, 4.2.2. The false alternative of objectivism and subjectivism, 4.2.3. What are facts?, 4.2.4. What are notions?], 4.3. Dilemmas of conceptualising the norm)

5. DILEMMAS OF MEANING (5.1. Theories of meaning [5.1.1. Lexicality, 5.1.2. Contextuality, 5.1.3. Hermeneutics, 5.1.4. Open texture, 5.1.5. Deconstructionism], 5.2. Social construction of meaning [5.2.1. Speech-acts, 5.2.2. Social institutionalisation], 5.3. Autopoiesis and systemic response)

6. PARADIGMS OF LEGAL THINKING (6.1. The nature of law [6.1.1. Law as process, 6.1.2. Multifactorality, 6.1.3. Law as made up from acts], 6.2. The nature of legal thinking)


Appendix I. LAW AND ITS APPROACH AS A SYSTEM (I.1. The logical structure of law as a historical product, I.2. Tendencies of formal rationalization in legal development)

Appendix II. IS LAW A SYSTEM OF ENACTMENTS? (II.1. Working models of law, II.2. Senses of contextuality in law, II.3. Jurisprudential approach and socio-ontological approach, II.4. Conclusions [II.4.1. Law as historical continuum, II.4.2. Law as open system, II.4.3. Law as complex phenomenon with alternative strategies, II.4.4. Law as an irreversible process, II.4.5. The genuinely societal character of law])

Appendix III. INSTITUTIONS AS SYSTEMS (III.1. A logic of systems, III.2. Ideal types and historically concrete manifestations, III.3. Ideal type as a normative ideology, III.4. Objectivity and contingency of systems, III.5. Limits and bonds, consequentiality and practicability of a system)

Appendix IV. LEGAL TECHNIQUE (IV.1. Legal technique {IV.1.1. [In a broader sense], IV.1.2. [In legal practice], IV.1.3. [In legal scholarship], IV.1.4. [Law as a special technique]}, IV.2. On legal technique {IV.2.1. Definition and function, IV.2.2. Legal technique and legal cultures, IV.2.3. Postulates of legal technique in the cultures of modern formal law})

Appendix V. THE INHERENT AMBIVALENCE OF A RATIONAL APPROACH (Is the human fullness of being to be destroyed as a price of progress?)

Csaba VARGA: Rechtsphilosophische Aufsätze (1994)

October 24, 2010 Leave a comment

Papers in Germanic languages (19 in German, 1 in Danish and 1 in Swedish) spanning from 1978 to 1990:

‘Beiträge zu den Beziehungen zwischen Gustav Radbruch & Georg Lukács’ [1979] / ‘Die Entwicklung des rechtstheoretischen Denkens in der Ungarischen Räterepublik’ [1969] / ‘Die Kodifikation & ihr Verfall in der Entwicklungsgeschichte der bürgerlichen Demokratie’ [1978] / ‘Rationalitet och rättens objektifiering’ [1975] / ‘Utopi og Kodifikation’ [1976] / ‘Historisches Wesen & aktuelle Bedeutung der Kodifikation’ [1977] / ‘Rechtssetzung als Objektivationsprozesses’ [1979] / ‘Die ministerielle Begründung in rechtsphilosophischer Sicht’ [1977] / ‘Moderne Staatlichkeit & modernes formales Recht’ [1982] / ‘Leibniz & die Frage der rechtlichen Systembildung’ [1973] / ‘Der Systemcharacter des Rechts’ [1979] / ‘Die grundlegende Gesellschaftlichkeit der Rechtsanwendung’ [1978] / ‘Über die Rechtsanwendung (Ontologische Überlegungen)’ [1986] / ‘Recht & Rechtsverwirklichung (»Juristischer Weltbild«, Subsumption & Manipulation)’ [1979] / ‘Hans Kelsens Rechtsanwendungslehre (Entwicklung, Mehrdeutigkeiten, offene Probleme, Perspektiven)’ [1986] / ‘Geltung des Rechts – Wirksamkeit des Rechts’ [1978] / ‘Heterogeneität & Geltung des Rechts’ [1979] / ‘Hans Kelsens’ Reine Rechtslehre – gestern, heute, morgen’ [1988] / ‘Für die Selbständigkeit der Rechtspolitik’ [1985] / ‘Die Gewaltenteilung (Ideologie & Utopie im politischen Denken)’ [1984] / ‘Rechtskultur – Denkkultur’ [1988]

Чаба VARGA: Право; Теория и философия (1994)

October 24, 2010 1 comment

Papers in Slavic languages  (10 in Russian, 3 in Czech, 2 in Serbian and 1 in Polish) spanning from 1974 to 1991:

‘Zásadní otázky vývoje a současnosti kodifikace právních institutů’ [1975] / ‘Изменение общества и права и вопросы кодификации’ [1973] / ‘Rozwoj prawa a jego kodyfikacja’ [1973] / ‘Систематизация и кодификация законодательства’ [1979] / ‘Взаимосвязь правотворчества и прaвоприменения’ [1978] / ‘Ленин и револуционное законодательство’ [1969] / ‘Завершение сoциалистической кодификации’ [1975] / ‘Ministerske oduvodneni a jeho uloha ve zprostredkovani pravnich hodnot’ [1977] / ‘Preambule – otazka pravní vědy’ [1970] / ‘За самостоятелность правовой политики’ [1985] / ‘Теоретическое содержание права как надстройки’ [1986] / ‘Појам права у Лукачевој онтологији’ [1977] / ‘Диалектика развития правовых инструментов: Презумпция / Фикция’ [1986] / ‘Раздeлeние властей – идеология и утопия в политической мысли’ [1984] / ‘Право как история’ [1986] / ‘Слобода, једнакост и појмовни минимум правие комуникације’ [1989]

Csaba VARGA: Transition to Rule of Law; On the Democratic Transformation in Hungary (1995)

October 24, 2010 Leave a comment

‘On Vitality in the Region’ [1995]

NO-LAW   ‘On Stalinism’ [1995] / ‘Past & Present’ [1985] / ‘Attempts at Reform from Within (La séparation des pouvoirs)’ [1984] / ‘What is Needed to have Law?’ [1989] / ‘Marxism in Service’ [1993]

TRANSITION   ‘The sui generis Nature of the Challenge’ [1993] / ‘Trumbling Steps of the New Constitutional State’ [1992]

SKIRMISHES AND THE GAME’S RULE   ‘Crime, not Civil Disobedience’ [1990] / ‘Fragility of the Constitutional Establishment’ [1990] / ‘Troubles Surrounding the Functions of Law’ [1991] / ‘Indivisibility of the Law & Rule of Law’ [1991] / ‘Civil Disobedience (Pattern with no Standard?)’ [1991]

COMING TO TERMS WITH THE PAST   ‘On Setting Standards’ [1990] / ‘Do we have the Right to Judge the Past?’ [1991] / ‘The Dilemma of Enforcing the Law’ [1992] / ‘Failure on Account of Constitutional Considerations?’ [1994]

RULE OF LAW   ‘Varieties of Law & Rule of Law’ [1993]